These are night photographs, and so the shadows are coming from moonlight, which of course is reflected sunlight.
The light on the Soldier’s helmet is called a firefly, or IR strobe. The flashing infrared light is invisible to the naked eye but can be seen with night vision gear and also with my special camera.
Tonight was very bright and so it’s tempting not to wear the PVS-14 night vision device; it’s easier to walk without it. But I—and probably 25 Soldiers over different missions—have been chastised by the commander, Lieutenant Colonel Mike Katona, for not wearing them. After five previous combat tours, he runs herd on wearing the night vision no matter how bright the night. During one mission, I joked with LTC Katona that he’ll still have on the PVS-14 at eight in the morning. But it’s no joke and he’s right. When the enemy starts firing, if you’ve got that night vision on you’ve got an instant and extreme advantage; if they are in a position to hit you, their muzzle flashes will be very bright through the PVS-14, and with the great accuracy of the M4 rifles, the troops can return decisive fire very quickly. During a mission wherein it was very bright, an NCO and I were not using our PVS-14s, and I followed him right off the cleared trail. IR chemlights were marking the trail but we didn’t even know that. One of our Soldiers died similarly in September. The Afghans don’t wear the PVS-14s, and some walked off the trail, and our Soldier was hit by an IED while following them.
Americans with night vision, Afghans without.
Both at night and daytime, it can be difficult to maintain convoy or patrol integrity. You can end up with a slinky-effect, or often just a break in contact. If it’s a big group, say 100 troops walking at night, and they keep a five-meter interval, that’s five hundred meters. About a quarter mile. And one big problem is that you don’t move like a snake where the head is connected by a long body to the tail. You move more like a broken slinky, or many broken slinkies is more like it. Southern Afghanistan is filled with obstacles such as grape rows, and so when the point element comes to a grape row, everyone ends up waiting while each person goes over. A snake can only move its head a very short distance before the tail gets the message. But with people, you end up kneeling and sitting a lot, and occasionally you have to move fast to catch up.
Movements with many Soldiers at night can get tricky and you can accidentally shoot each other. For instance, during this movement, not far from where this photo was taken, the patrol took a right-hand turn that was about 90 degrees. And so now instead of being in a line, we were in an L shape. If you take contact, everyone must be very careful with their trigger finger. Those night vision devices can be crucial advantages in deciding friend or foe.