In the combat tracking world, there is full-fledged tracking, and the more basic GSA (Ground Sign Awareness). GSA is a fundamental skill for tracking, and GSA often is all that is needed to avoid IEDs and ambushes.
GSA that I learned from the British in 2009 has often been useful. After returning to Afghanistan, the instruction proved its value in combat areas. Thanks to that course, last year in Afghanistan, I spotted an IED emplacement freshly under construction. There were no explosives in it yet. My guess is that they started emplacing it after our helicopters landed nearby. A couple hours before that find, we had a fatality a few hundred meters away, and the next day, another. The village was loaded with IEDs.
The commander of the British tracking school was Major Dean Williams. After working his way through the ranks, Major Williams retired from the British Royal Marine Commandos, and started a company called Pencari, which means “seeker” in Malay. Pencari will be teaching the Ground Sign Awareness Instructor’s Course in Norway at the Land Warfare Center, Engineer School, Mine and Explosive Center. The course will start in one week.
For spotting IEDs in Afghanistan, basic Ground Sign Awareness can compliment or trump much of the tens of billions of dollars that we spend on gadgets, many of which seem to be of limited use. Armor is for post-blast, and much high-tech gear only works on roads because heavy IED gear must be mounted on vehicles. No gear can read the local population.
No gear can notice a sports shoe print. I have never seen an Afghan farmer wear a sports shoe, but have seen plenty of Taliban (etc.) wearing them. The few trained trackers in Afghanistan are aware that Taliban, Haqqani, and others, wear sports shoes. Afghanistan is not the Florida turnpike where profiling makes a mess of our PC world; in combat, profiling is a basic survival skill, and if troops encounter young men wearing sports shoes in a village, they should put those men on the ground and sort it out from there.
If they have a tracking team, they can question the sports shoe men, and then just follow back their tracks to see if they are truth-telling. Most areas in Southern Afghanistan can easily be tracked through.
Before going into the meetings in Afghanistan, to wade through the smiles and lies of tea time, Afghans normally take off their shoes at the front door. In small villages, their shoes mostly are old and ill fitting. Watch for sports shoes.
In the “Dead Taliban of Chora,” please notice the shoes on the dead guy. Then scan around and look at the villagers’ shoes. The dead guy was attacking Afghan Police and was shot. He was from a nearby village. Enemy activity had been high, and the shoes on these villagers were better than what is often seen. The footwear in this village is better than in many, but relatively pitiful compared to what some full-time enemy wear (not implying they are enemy). The red band on the rifle is for recognition. We were there without the military and our security used red for recognition.
The Taliban often wear sports shoes that are unmistakable, or at least good sandals they can run in. No electronic gear will notice if the six guys in front of you are all wearing excellent footwear, or the new tracks on the road that appeared overnight say NIKE. Please have a look at the good sandals these dead guys are wearing: They attacked some cops last year and got shot.
Many of our troops spend months around a particular village. Most Afghan villagers have only one set of shoes. A tracker might take inventory of which villager wears which shoes, and the tracker might surreptitiously photograph them, their footwear, and their tracks, and make a notebook. He knows who works which fields. If there is an attack, he can compare tracks against his notebook. At least one British trooper did this with success.
Handheld gear does not work until the user is within the fatal reach of the bomb. If the gear detects the bomb, the point man is already within the distance of a push broom. If the device is command detonated, the enemy will just kill him, and his bomb detector will fly away in pieces.
The last two IED fatalities that I witnessed were far from roads. In the first case, the gear had been used to sweep a narrow path, and the victim stepped off the path and got hit. The strike occurred in early-morning darkness, so he would not have seen it anyway. Bottom line: the gear and the bomb dogs did not save him.
Video of that loss: Fool’s Gold and Troops’ Blood.
The next fatality happened the next day in broad daylight. This time it was an Afghan Soldier. Importantly, most members of combat units do not carry counter-IED gear, and it only works part-time anyway. Many IEDs contain little to no metal, and are not detectable by some equipment.
As for bomb dogs, they are helpful but not magic. Sometimes they are fantastic, but bomb dogs can be like kids. They get hot, tired, and emotional, and then just stop working. A dog walked right past a bomb in Sangin.
Some innovators are now talking about using rats. How far can a rat go on a hot day? Any idea that our troops can leash rats and follow them for five miles though hot deserts while they scurry around sniffing for bombs, is insane. Rats might be great for detecting bombs in a house or limited areas, but for most Afghanistan combat, forget it.
The only thing that works all of the time, and often at a good distance, is the human eye and human understanding of the environment.